Youth, Skills and Employment

 

 Projects     Publications      Seminars     Experts 

Youth unemployment and the inability of young people to enter the labour market is a persistent problem of global development. According to ILO estimates, 13 percent of young people globally are unemployed, following a rapid increase in youth unemployment during the global crisis 2007-2010. The skills that young people build during their studies, life-long learning opportunities for young adults (as well as older groups) and linkages between formal and vocational schooling and the labour market prove to be important policy levers for making sure young people are integrated into the labour force and contribute economically and socially to society. Skills development is a primary means of enabling young people to make a smooth transition to work. We focus on the measurement of policies that aim to integrate young women and men in the labour market, including relevant and quality skills training provision of, labour market information, career guidance and employment services and entrepreneurship training and services for youth. 

Projects

 

Enhancing Advocacy Capacities of Youth CSOs in Turkey: Guiding CSOs through Research

Youth, civic participation, advocacy, trainings

This project aims to provide background research on the situation of young people who are “neither in education nor in employment or training” (NEET), highlight CSO models in Turkey that address this problem and strengthen the capacity of CSOs working in the field of youth empowerment. By analysing the situation, building capacity at youth CSOs, and introducing their models to experts at relevant ministries the project aims to enrich the ongoing policy discussions on the issue of NEET.  The project has three main activity packages: (i) Building knowledge and research with a baseline research study, (ii) Training and capacity building workshops in youth CSOs and preparation of a handbook, (iii) Dissemination, advocacy and networking workshops.

The project is led by Development Analytics with Hayal Ortakları Derneği (YGA) as a co-applicant. The project is funded by the European Union under the Grant Scheme for Civil Society Support Programme.

April 2019 – ongoing

Final Evaluation of the Pilot Implementation of SCORE Methodology in Turkey

Sustainability, Employment

Sustaining Competitive and Responsible Enterprises (SCORE) is a practical training and in factory counselling programme to increase the productivity of small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) while promoting respect for workers’ rights. The programme demonstrates best international practice in manufacturing and service sectors and helps SMEs to participate in global supply chains. The intervention in Turkey targeted SMEs in Turkey in the selected province; Kocaeli to improve the competitiveness and productivity levels of the selected SMEs through strengthening the workplace cooperation and working conditions to ensure scaling up SCORE programme by the relevant government agencies and industry organizations to enable larger number of SMEs to benefit from the SCORE in Turkey. The final evaluation of the Project aimed to assess the results of the work done in order to properly report on the results as well as define the steps for possible further project development in the improvement of working conditions in SMEs and SME efficiency and productivity. The evaluation applied the key criteria of relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, sustainability and impact potential. To this end, a fieldwork composing of in-depth interviews had been conducted, and original data collected through i) these qualitative interviews, and ii) quantitative surveys from the programme participants.

December 2015 - April 2016

School to Work Transition in Moldova: Informing Schooling and Jobs Decisions

Youth and Employment, School to Work Transition

The main objective of the task “Informing Schooling and Jobs Decisions in Moldova” was to inform on‐going and planned reforms in Moldova that aim to improve labour market outcomes, in particular through better aligning the education system with labour market needs, with a focus on better understanding how males and females from different socio‐economic groups form their expectations regarding labour market outcomes and how they make their schooling and employment decisions in relation to these expectations. For this purpose, both quantitative and qualitative data were collected by the World Bank, combining mixed methods individual interview and focus group discussions. This Project entailed the qualitative coding and analysis of data from 22 focus groups of young people in vocational schools, junior and secondary schools universities, recent graduates, as well as parents and teachers. 

The main focus for the analysis included:
‐ Reasons to choose specific education paths
- Student aspirations
‐ Perception of the education system and the different career orientation activities.

August 2015-October 2015

Final Global Evaluation of the Decent Work in the Green Economy Project

Sustainability, Employment

The ILO project “Decent Work in the Green Economy” has focused on the employment aspects of national efforts to transition to a green economy. The project was implemented in 3 countries Mexico, China, and Turkey. The global evaluation report was undertaken in this project after carrying out the local interviews in Turkey and receiving local country reports for Mexico and China. The report followed the guidelines indicated in the TOR and evaluate: (i) the project’s relevance and effectiveness; project achievements against immediate objective and expected outputs; (ii) emerging outcomes and impacts of the interventions; (iii) lessons learned and recommendations for future projects of similar focus.   

March 2015 - July 2015

Good Jobs in Turkey: Post-Crisis Adjustment and Employment Generation for Men, Women and Youth in Turkey

Youth, Gender, Employment

The paper looked at the composition and nature of employment generation among youth and women in the post-crisis period in Turkey between 2009-2011. The paper discussed changes in trends in employment generation, particularly for youth and women between the pre-crisis and post-crisis periods.  While rapid growth of GDP and employment in the post-crisis period, coupled with formalization of employment in the labour market and the increased employment elasticity of growth, presented a favourable picture of the employment situation in Turkey, a closer look at labour force surveys suggested that there was not yet reason to assume that these changes in the labour market will have lasting effects. From evidence, the majority of the changes observed could be linked to: (i) the agricultural sector re-absorbing a significant portion of the unskilled female labour force into informal employment; (ii) temporary growth in the residential construction sector; and (iii) older people remaining in the formal labour market for longer periods. Younger cohorts have seen a shift from informal to formal work, if with little overall job growth. However, for youth, a significant change could not be found in the employment trend in the post-crisis period compared to the pre-crisis period. The improvement in female labour force participation, particularly when we disregard returns to the agricultural sector - is not yet significantly above its pre-crisis trend either. 

 

📖 Download the report

July 2013 - September 2013

Survey on School-based Violence among Young Adolescents

Youth

Preparation of methodology, sampling and survey instrument for a study by the Young Life Foundation (Genç Hayat Vakfı) on "School-based Violence (and Bullying) among Young Adolescents". The sample was selected among public high schools in Istanbul and the survey instrument was designed using similar surveys from international studies. The survey was fielded in May - June 2013 by the Young Life Foundation. 

March 2013 - May 2013

Please reload

 

Publications

Good Jobs in Turkey

The World Bank Group

This joint study, by the World Bank and the Turkish Ministry of Development, explores the status and effects of good jobs in Turkey's current economy. After a brief account of economic events, it examines the relationship between growth and employment in Turkey, with a particular regard to the participation of different social groups in the labor market, such as women and youth. It then analyzes where jobs are being created and which activities are the most productive for the Turkish economy, and assesses if jobs have moved to more productive activities in recent years. Finally, the report proceeds to measure the impact of different types of jobs on the welfare of an entire household and on the households relative position in the overall income distribution.

 

📖 Download the report

November 2013

Recent Trends in Female labour Force Participation in Turkey

Arzu Uraz, Meltem A. Aran, Müşerref Hüsamoğlu, Dilek Okkalı Şanalmış, Sinem Capar

The female labour force participation level in Turkey is currently very low at 27% compared with the OECD and EU-19 averages of 61 and 64% respectively. This rate has been declining in the last 30 years from a level of 48% in 1980. This paper looks at the most recent trends and profiles of labour force participation of women in Turkey using three different household level data sources in available Turkey (HBS, LFS and TDHS) for the period 2003-2006. The paper also reports a multivatiate analysis on the probability of working for women, controlling for various characteristics.

 

📖 Read the paper

March 2010

Please reload

 

Seminars

 

Understanding crowdworking markets: Determinants of job satisfaction and earnings

Dr Luis Pinedo Caro, International Labour Organisation

This article provides an economic analysis of the determinants of wages and job satisfaction among crowdworkers. This study takes advantage of the international scope of a survey on crowdworkers carried out by the ILO to show evidence in favour of crowdsourcing platforms clearing at an international price, opening the door to relatively well-remunerated work in developing countries. In addition, the study offers a novel perspective with respect to job satisfaction in crowdsourcing platforms by analysing the relationship between the reasons for doing crowd work and the crowdworkers' level of job satisfaction; this analysis confirms that workers based in poorer countries are more satisfied with crowd work and suggests that crowdsourcing platforms may lead to high levels of job satisfaction when it is not a forced choice due to, for instance, lack of other job opportunities.

January 26, 2018

Please reload

Experts

Executive Director

Meltem is a human development economist with research focusing on poverty, inequality and overall distributional impact of social policies. Since 2004, she has been involved in various research projects and impact evaluations relating to poverty and human development with the World Bank in East Asia, ECA and MENA regions.

 

Research Associate

Güneş is a development economist with research interests in growth, regional development, and female labour force participation trends. She works as an assistant professor at TOBB Economics and Technology University in Ankara and is teaching econometrics, statistics, and mathematics. Her current research is on the estimation of income per capita series and constructing development indicators for the 26 regions of Turkey since the late 19th century using historical sources.

Research Associate

Irem’s research focuses on public policy and taxation, R&D, innovation and firm-level productivity. She is currently Research Fellow at the Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation at Saïd Business School. Irem was previously a private sector development economist at the World Bank as part of the Europe and Central Asia region, Financial and Private Sector Development unit working on topics related to R&D and technology adoption, corporate taxation, small and medium-sized enterprises, state aid, exports and financial sector development. 

 

Research Associate

Beyza is an applied microeconomist with a primary interest in industrial organization and regional development. Her current research focuses on the econometric evaluation of the effect of regional economic development policies on unemployment and firm behaviour.

 

Gokce Uysal.Ph.D.

Research Associate

Gokce Uysal is currently an associate professor of economics at Bahcesehir University and the deputy director at Bahcesehir University Center for Economic and Social Research (Betam). She works on labour markets, economics of gender, economics of education and household savings. Dr Uysal holds a BA from Galatasaray University and a doctoral degree in Economics from University of Rochester.

Research Associate

Şenay is a cultural anthropologist and a researcher. Her research areas include international migration, refugees, Turkish state’s refugee policies, politics of humanitarian aid.

Qualitative Social Policy Researcher

Zeynep Baser-Kubiena is a senior qualitative researcher specialized in program evaluation and qualitative methods. Zeynep has been working in the field of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) since 2012. Since then she has worked both as an internal M&E officer within the organizations and as an external evaluator conducting independent program evaluations for international donor organizations.