Youth, Skills and Employment


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Youth unemployment and the inability of young people to enter the labour market is a persistent problem of global development. According to ILO estimates, 13 percent of young people globally are unemployed, following a rapid increase in youth unemployment during the global crisis 2007-2010. The skills that young people build during their studies, life-long learning opportunities for young adults (as well as older groups) and linkages between formal and vocational schooling and the labour market prove to be important policy levers for making sure young people are integrated into the labour force and contribute economically and socially to society. Skills development is a primary means of enabling young people to make a smooth transition to work. We focus on the measurement of policies that aim to integrate young women and men in the labour market, including relevant and quality skills training provision of, labour market information, career guidance and employment services and entrepreneurship training and services for youth. 



Enhancing Advocacy Capacities of Youth CSOs in Turkey: Guiding CSOs through Research

Youth, Civic Participation, Advocacy, Trainings


April 2019 - October 2020

This project aims to provide background research on the situation of young people who are “neither in education nor in employment or training” (NEET), highlight CSO models in Turkey that address this problem, and strengthen the capacity of CSOs working in the field of youth empowerment. By analysing the situation, building capacity at youth CSOs, and introducing their models to experts at relevant ministries the project aims to enrich the ongoing policy discussions on the issue of NEET.  The project has three main activity packages: (i) Building knowledge and research with a baseline research study, (ii) Training and capacity building workshops in youth CSOs and preparation of a handbook, (iii) Dissemination, advocacy, and networking workshops.

The project is led by Development Analytics with Hayal Ortakları Derneği (YGA) as a co-applicant. The project is funded by the European Union under the Grant Scheme for Civil Society Support Programme.

📖 Download the Report  / the Summary (English)

📖 Download the Report  / the Summary (Turkish)

Read the Report Online

Final Evaluation of the Pilot Implementation of SCORE Methodology in Turkey

Sustainability, Employment


December 2015 - April 2016

Sustaining Competitive and Responsible Enterprises (SCORE) is a practical training and in-factory counselling programme to increase the productivity of small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) while promoting respect for workers’ rights. The programme demonstrates the best international practice in the manufacturing and service sectors and helps SMEs to participate in global supply chains. The intervention in Turkey targeted SMEs in Turkey in the selected province; Kocaeli to improve the competitiveness and productivity levels of the selected SMEs through strengthening the workplace cooperation and working conditions to ensure scaling up SCORE programme by the relevant government agencies and industry organizations to enable a larger number of SMEs to benefit from the SCORE in Turkey. The final evaluation of the project aimed to assess the results of the work done in order to properly report on the results as well as define the steps for possible further project development in the improvement of working conditions in SMEs and SME efficiency and productivity. The evaluation applied the key criteria of relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, sustainability, and impact potential. To this end, a fieldwork composing of in-depth interviews had been conducted, and original data collected through (i) these qualitative interviews, and (ii) quantitative surveys from the programme participants.

School to Work Transition in Moldova: Informing Schooling and Jobs Decisions

Youth and Employment, School to Work Transition

August 2015 - October 2015

The main objective of the task “Informing Schooling and Jobs Decisions in Moldova” was to inform on‐going and planned reforms in Moldova that aim to improve labour market outcomes, in particular through better aligning the education system with labour market needs, with a focus on better understanding how males and females from different socio‐economic groups form their expectations regarding labour market outcomes and how they make their schooling and employment decisions in relation to these expectations. For this purpose, both quantitative and qualitative data were collected by the World Bank, combining mixed-methods individual interviews and focus group discussions. This Project entailed the qualitative coding and analysis of data from 22 focus groups of young people in vocational schools, junior and secondary schools universities, recent graduates, as well as parents and teachers. 

(i) Reasons to choose specific education paths
(ii) Student aspirations
(iii) Perception of the education system and the different career orientation activities.

Final Global Evaluation of the Decent Work in the Green Economy Project

Sustainability, Employment


March 2015 - July 2015

The ILO project “Decent Work in the Green Economy” has focused on the employment aspects of national efforts to transition to a green economy. The project was implemented in 3 countries Mexico, China, and Turkey. The global evaluation report was undertaken in this project after carrying out the local interviews in Turkey and receiving local country reports for Mexico and China. The report followed the guidelines indicated in the TOR and evaluate: (i) the project’s relevance and effectiveness; project achievements against immediate objective and expected outputs; (ii) emerging outcomes and impacts of the interventions; (iii) lessons learned and recommendations for future projects of similar focus.   

Good Jobs in Turkey: Post-Crisis Adjustment and Employment Generation for Men, Women, and Youth in Turkey

Youth, Gender, Employment


July 2013 - September 2013

The paper looked at the composition and nature of employment generation among youth and women in the post-crisis period in Turkey between 2009-2011. The paper discussed changes in trends in employment generation, particularly for youth and women between the pre-crisis and post-crisis periods.  While the rapid growth of GDP and employment in the post-crisis period, coupled with formalization of employment in the labour market and the increased employment elasticity of growth, presented a favourable picture of the employment situation in Turkey, a closer look at labour force surveys suggested that there was not yet reason to assume that these changes in the labour market will have lasting effects. From evidence, the majority of the changes observed could be linked to (i) the agricultural sector re-absorbing a significant portion of the unskilled female labour force into informal employment; (ii) temporary growth in the residential construction sector; and (iii) older people remaining in the formal labour market for longer periods. Younger cohorts have seen a shift from informal to formal work, if with little overall job growth. However, for youth, a significant change could not be found in the employment trend in the post-crisis period compared to the pre-crisis period. The improvement in female labour force participation, particularly when we disregard returns to the agricultural sector - is not yet significantly above its pre-crisis trend either. 

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Survey on School-based Violence among Young Adolescents


March 2013 - May 2013

Preparation of methodology, sampling and survey instrument for a study by the Young Life Foundation (Genç Hayat Vakfı) on "School-based Violence (and Bullying) among Young Adolescents". The sample was selected among public high schools in Istanbul and the survey instrument was designed using similar surveys from international studies. The survey was fielded in May - June 2013 by the Young Life Foundation. 




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Harnessing the Power of Youth: An Analysis of Youth Not-in-Employment, Education or Training (NEET) in Turkey and Policies and Civil Society Models that Promote Active Youth Engagement


October 2020

This research study was conducted within the scope of the “Enhancing Advocacy Capacities of Youth CSOs in Turkey: Guiding CSOs through Research” project jointly executed by Development Analytics and the Young Guru Academy (YGA). This project is financed within the scope of second phase of "Civil Society Support Programme" which is supported by EU and coordinated by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Directorate for EU Affairs. The report aims to contribute to the analytical and academic evidence base on the issue of youth, not in employment, education or training in Turkey, as well as to provide a stocktake of available models of youth empowerment from existing CSOs and to highlight these models to a policy audience.

📖 Download the Report  / the Summary (English)

📖 Download the Report  / the Summary (Turkish)

Read the Report Online

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Good Jobs in Turkey​

The World Bank Group​ 

November 2013

This joint study, by the World Bank and the Turkish Ministry of Development, explores the status and effects of good jobs in Turkey's current economy. After a brief account of economic events, it examines the relationship between growth and employment in Turkey, with a particular regard to the participation of different social groups in the labour market, such as women and youth. It then analyses where jobs are being created and which activities are the most productive for the Turkish economy and assesses if jobs have moved to more productive activities in recent years. Finally, the report proceeds to measure the impact of different types of jobs on the welfare of an entire household and on the households relative position in the overall income distribution.

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Recent Trends in Female labour Force Participation in Turkey​

Arzu Uraz, Meltem A. Aran, Müşerref Hüsamoğlu, Dilek Okkalı Şanalmış, Sinem Capar

March 2010

The female labour force participation level in Turkey is currently very low at 27% compared with the OECD and EU-19 averages of 61 and 64% respectively. This rate has been declining in the last 30 years from a level of 48% in 1980. This paper looks at the most recent trends and profiles of labour force participation of women in Turkey using three different household-level data sources in available Turkey (HBS, LFS, and TDHS) for the period 2003-2006. The paper also reports a multivariate analysis on the probability of working for women, controlling for various characteristics.

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Meltem Aran, Ph.D.
Executive Director

Meltem is a human development economist with research focusing on poverty, inequality, and overall distributional impact of social policies. Since 2004, she has been involved in various research projects and impact evaluations relating to poverty and human development with the World Bank in East Asia, ECA, and MENA regions.

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Güneş Aşık, Ph.D.
Research Associate

Güneş is a development economist with research interests in growth, regional development, and female labour force participation trends. She works as an assistant professor at TOBB Economics and Technology University in Ankara and is teaching econometrics, statistics, and mathematics. Her current research is on the estimation of income per capita series and constructing development indicators for the 26 regions of Turkey since the late 19th century using historical sources.

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Irem Guceri, Ph.D.
Research Associate

Irem’s research focuses on public policy and taxation, R&D, innovation and firm-level productivity. She is currently Research Fellow at the Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation at Saïd Business School. Irem was previously a private sector development economist at the World Bank as part of the Europe and Central Asia region, Financial and Private Sector Development unit working on topics related to R&D and technology adoption, corporate taxation, small and medium-sized enterprises, state aid, exports and financial sector development. 


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Gokce Uysal.Ph.D.
Research Associate

Gokce Uysal is currently an associate professor of economics at Bahcesehir University and the deputy director at Bahcesehir University Center for Economic and Social Research (Betam). She works on labour markets, economics of gender, economics of education, and household savings. Dr. Uysal holds a BA from Galatasaray University and a doctoral degree in Economics from University of Rochester.


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Şenay Özden
Research Associate

Şenay is a cultural anthropologist and a researcher. Her research areas include international migration, refugees, Turkish state’s refugee policies, politics of humanitarian aid.

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Zeynep Başer
Qualitative Social Policy Researcher

Zeynep Baser-Kubiena is a senior qualitative researcher specialized in program evaluation and qualitative methods. Zeynep has been working in the field of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) since 2012. Since then she has worked both as an internal M&E officer within the organizations and as an external evaluator conducting independent program evaluations for international donor organizations.  


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Hazal Colak
Data Scientist for Social Policy

Hazal is a data scientist for social policy at Development Analytics with research interests related to poverty and inequality, social assistance reforms, cash transfer programmes and targeting approaches, and child welfare. She has received her master’s degree in Comparative Social Policy from the University of Oxford, focusing on the comparative welfare system analysis and cross-national variations in major social policy areas.


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