About 70% of the world poor live in rural areas. Rural people are not only isolated from economic opportunities. They also tend to have less access to social services such as health, sanitation, and education; for example, it is estimated that around 1 billion rural households in developing countries lack access to safe water supplies. Because it is the case that in rural areas a) the poor are small farmers and b) agriculture acts as the engine of growth, investing in agriculture has long been seen as a means of simultaneously addressing both growth and equity issues. Development Analytics focuses on agriculture and rural development in its work program through the lens of impact evaluations in agricultural extension programs and integrated development programs in rural areas. Rural livelihoods are central to the food security of countries and making sure that basic services are provided at reasonable cost in remote areas, to make sure rural poor also can have access to equal services and opportunities is important for future sustainability of the world’s rural as well as urban populations.