5. Conclusions

5. Conclusions

This study has focused on the socio-economic challenges faced by refugees and the role of the ESSN in Turkey, along with other income sources in enabling refugee’s capacity to cope with these challenges. The study has focused on the pre-pandemic period as well as assessed changes through the early and later stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and late 2021. Refugees in Turkey were already working in precarious and informal sector jobs prior to the pandemic, and their livelihoods have been seriously impacted in this period as a result of restrictions, that led to lower hours worked and lower earnings. The ESSN, especially with the top-ups provided in the early stages of the pandemic, was an important support and lifeline for beneficiary refugee households, protecting them from negative coping strategies in the early stages of the pandemic.