Education and Early Childhood Development

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Education is a fundamental human right and it also paves the way for economic empowerment and growth, while it is also the key to building healthy and prosperous lives. Importance of education starts very early on in a person’s life during the early childhood. The early years of life are crucial not only for individual health and physical development but also for cognitive and socio-emotional development. Events in the first few years of life are formative and play a vital role in building human capital, breaking the cycle of poverty, promoting economic productivity, and eliminating social disparities and inequities. Education continues to be important in the later years of life with higher levels of education leading to better life outcomes in terms of health, life skills, job skills and earnings for the person. At Development Analytics we focus on measuring the effects of education policies and intervention aiming to improve early childhood outcomes. 



Thematic Studies on the Extension of the CCTE Programme to Refugees in Turkey

Refugees, cash transfers, education

As of 2018, over 3.8 million Syrians were under temporary protection of whom 1.8 million of them are children. The magnitude of the problem and a high number of Syrians in the country required establishing various social protection programmes. The Government of Turkey along with UNICEF and other partners have put a significant amount of efforts as a response to this crisis. One of these actions is Conditional Cash Transfer for Education (CCTE). This CCTE programme has a cash and a protection component where families receive financial support for every child attending school. This study analysed the key aspects related to the access and effects of the programme for working children, including seasonal agricultural labour, ii) boys and girls, iii) children of different age groups (1-4th grade, 5-8th grade, 9-12th grade). The aim of the study was to understand the supply and demand side bottlenecks that hinder these children’s access to CCTE programme and payment as well as Child Protection visits. To this end, 23 FGDs with children and their parents were conducted in three provinces, Istanbul, Gaziantep and Adana in addition to 14 key informant interviews with programme implementers and MONE staff in these provinces. 

May 2018 – February 2019

Breakeven Analysis for Neighbourhood Child Care Centres

This study focuses on the feasibility of opening up and running neighbourhood child care centres in poor and medium income neighbourhoods in Turkey. Breakeven analysis is employed using different kinds of data sources and different scenarios with respect to centre capacity and subsidy type. In the study (i) a supply side dataset collected from private child care centres in 5 provinces in Turkey and (ii) information provided by child care centres of KEDV are used as two different data sources. Set up costs, operational costs and prices of child care centres are taken into account in order to estimate the number of months it requires for the child care centres to pay the set up costs through the prices that they charge (breakeven point). Breakeven point is estimated for child care centres with different capacity levels and in different subsidy scenarios. The subsidy scenarios include (i) subsidized director salary, (ii) subsidized teacher salaries, (iii) subsidized rent, (iv) both the director and teacher salaries and the rent are subsidized. The aim of the study is to show the general attractiveness of opening up child care centres in poor or medium income neighbourhoods from a financial point of view and the kinds of subsidies that would be more helpful in attracting more cooperatives or private entrepreneurs to set up child care centres. 

April 2018 - June 2018

Education of Disadvantaged Children in the OIC: the Key to Escape from Poverty

Education, Poverty

This report focuses on access to education among disadvantaged groups in the member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). The report provides an overview of the current status and recent trends in education focusing on access to quality education by poverty status, location, gender, spoken language /ethnicity and disability status of children as well as policies and programmes to improve access among disadvantaged groups. The main focus is on primary and lower secondary education. The report consists of four parts. i) An outline of the conceptual framework used in analysing the state of education in OIC countries. ii) A summary of the state of education across OIC member states. This includes an analysis of trends across and between countries as well as an assessment of which groups are most disadvantaged with respect to access to education. iii) Case studies for the member states Jordan, Pakistan, Senegal, and Turkey which provide a more detailed assessment of factors affecting education provision in these countries. iv) Policy recommendations to increase access to education among disadvantaged groups.

      Download the PPT

📖 Download the report  and  the infographic

📖 Download the infographics of  Pakistan  Jordan   Senegal

March 2017-October 2017

Status of Children (Ages 0-6) in Turkey Advocacy Campaign Research Study

Early Childhood Development, Education, Health and Nutrition

This project aims to reveal the status of children in the 0 –6 year age group in Turkey, with a focus on statistical analysis of the current situation, international comparisons on children’s well-being. The study will look at the existing literature in Turkey, as well as international studies to look at and identify gaps in policies and programs targeting children in this age group.  Within the scope of the study, 4 main themes will be covered  (i) Child and  Family  Characteristics  (ii)  Child  Protection  (iii)  Infant and Child  Health and  Nutrition,  and  (iv)  Early  Childhood Education. 

📖 Download the report in Turkish

November 2015- September 2016

Ex-ante Policy Evaluation of Supply and Demand Side Childcare Subsidies

Early Childhood Education and Care, Policy simulations

This study presents policy simulations looking at the fiscal implications of a subsidy for the child care market under various scenarios, and considering its impact on expanding capacity, service utilization, and female employment. The scenarios also present in each case the distributional impact of the subsidy under various modes of delivery of the subsidy (per capita grants to schools vs vouchers etc.). Policy scenarios evaluated in the paper include: (i) making municipalities of a certain size liable for providing child care services – through without supporting the operations with  central government financing (Scenario 0-1), (ii) provision of an investment grant only (Scenario 2), (iii) provision of an operational grant (with or without a price cap (Scenarios 3-4), (iv) providing a voucher scheme (Scenario 5), and (v) provision of the interaction of an investment grant with an operational grant or a voucher scheme (Scenarios 6-8).  The purpose of the policy measures is assumed to be three-fold:  (i) to increase the capacity of these services, (ii) to increase accessibility and affordability of services for children from disadvantaged backgrounds and (iii) to increase female labour force participation by increasing employment rates of mothers who will utilize services as well as creating new employment at these child care centres for care-taker women.   

📖 View the presentation at this link

📖 Download the full article

January 2016 - June 2016

School to Work Transition in Moldova: Informing Schooling and Jobs Decisions

Youth and Employment, School to Work Transition

The main objective of the task “Informing Schooling and Jobs Decisions in Moldova” was to inform ongoing and planned reforms in Moldova that aim to improve labor market outcomes, in particular through better aligning the education system with labor market needs, with a focus on better understanding how males and females from different socioeconomic groups form their expectations regarding labor market outcomes and how they make their schooling and employment decisions in relation to these expectations. 

For this purpose, both quantitative and qualitative data were collected by the World Bank, combining mixed methods individual interview and focus group discussions. This Project entailed the qualitative coding and analysis of data from 22 focus groups of young people in vocational schools, junior and secondary schools universities, recent graduates, as well as parents and teachers. 

The main focus for the analysis included: (i) Reasons to choose specific education paths, (ii) Student aspirations, (iii) Perception of the education system and the different career orientation activities.

August 2015- November 2015

August 2015- November 2015

Supply and Demand for Child Care Services in Turkey: A Mixed Methods Study

Early Childhood Education and Care, Female labour Force Participation

Mixed methods study that investigates the status of childcare services in Turkey, particularly from the angle of quality, affordability, accessibility, and sufficiency of such supply. The overall work was done considering the potential interaction between such services and female labour force participation and productivity. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected for the study in 5 provinces of Turkey: Istanbul, Samsun, Eskisehir, Denizli, and Gaziantep. The study has 4 main components:

(i) Mapping of Child Care visually maps the availability and capacity of existing childcare and early childhood education supply in relation to the potential demand (i.e. number of children), female labour force participation levels, and (information allowed) average household income levels, both at the national level and in selected provinces;

(ii) Supply Side Assessment  includes the collection of quantitative data from 603 preschools and child care centres in Turkey and investigates the types of childcare services available to households, both public and private, as well as community-based and other models, and explore their quality, cost, and accessibility in detail;

(iii) Demand Side Assessment explores the normative and social aspects of use and access childcare services. It will include both focus groups and individual questionnaires to better understand care needs of families with children, household preferences when it comes to childcare and barriers to access childcare, as well as women’s and men’s expectations of a new childcare support model. The demand assessment is structured around the dynamics of care demand and supply at the household level, having women and their labour force engagement as the centre. includes 25 focus group discussions with working, non-working mothers and fathers in 5 provinces;

(iv) Costing exercise investigates the actual operating costs of childcare centres in these provinces. The exercise also takes into consideration average family income in those provinces as well as household willingness to pay for childcare centres. 


📖 Download the report in English / in Turkish

📖 Download the infographic in English / in Turkish


📖 Read our article: "Investing in women and the next generation: The case for expanding childcare in Turkey"

April 2014 - September 2015

Estimating the Economic Value of Unpaid Elderly and Child Care by Turkish Women

Female labour Force Participation, Early Childhood Care and Education

The study estimates the economic value of unpaid elderly and child care activities provided by Turkish women in the household. We plan to use two established methodologies to estimate the value of time spent on care activities by women in Turkey: (i) the opportunity cost method and (ii) the proxy good method (Berg et al 2004). Two household data sets will be used for the estimation, the Turkey Labour Force Survey (2011) and Time Use Survey (2006), both collected by TURKSTAT representative at the national level in Turkey. 


📖 Download the full paper 

March 2014 - September 2015

Montessori Preschool Teacher Training Project

Early Childhood Care and Education, Capacity Building

This project aims to extend the knowledge and practice of the Montessori method in nurseries and kindergartens of Istanbul. Montessori Teacher Training project targets to reach new graduates of Early Childhood Development departments of universities or vocational schools, and nurses in KEDV’s daycare centres. Implementation of this project will reinforce young teachers to improve their capabilities in early childhood education with Montessori philosophy. During the project implementation period, 20 nurses/voluntaries/teachers in KEDV's preschools, and 40 senior university students/new graduates will be taught by a London Montessori Centre International certified teacher trainer. A teachers’ handbook on Montessori method will be written and distributed. 



📖 Read our article: Montessori Teacher Training in Neighborhood Crèches of Istanbul: The Project and Beyond


Watch our documentary video on Montessori Preschool Teacher Training Project


📖 Read our book on Montessori method and teacher training: Following the Child:  The history, philosophy, and application of Montessori education (Turkish)

Sep 2014 - August 2015

Demand for Child Care and Elderly Care in Western Balkans and Central Asia: A Cross-Country Qualitative Assessment

Childcare, Elderly Care, Gender

The Project involved the coding and analysis of the qualitative data that were collected via 66 focus group discussions in seven countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, Serbia, Ukraine, Armenia and the Kyrgyz Republic. The report focused on women’s care responsibilities in ECA Countries, how care responsibilities impact women’s lives, as well as their perceptions and demand for center-based child care and elder care services.  The project was part of a larger work program by the World Bank focusing on a supply and demand side assessment of child and elderly care services in ECA Countries.

November 2014-July 2015

Supporting Access and Continued Employment of Women by Enhancing Child Care Services

Female Labour Force Participation, Early Childhood Care and Education

This study evaluates the possibility of expanding child care facilities by analysing the demand conditions currently in the market for undertaking private sector child care investments in order to enhance the female employment. It also aims to provide a demand assessment for possibilities of investments by the private sector, organized industrial zones (OIZs) and municipalities. In this sense, the study aimed to collect qualitative data from municipalities, organized industrial zones, and corporate firms as providers of private child care services in three provinces of Turkey. A total of 50 in-depth interviews were carried out with stakeholders at municipalities, organized industrial zones, corporate firms and financial institutions for the feasibility study and results were compiled using a coding structure that enabled the team to code and analyses the qualitative data in a quantitative format.  In order to achieve these objectives, the report give (I) an overview of the child care services sector for Turkey looking at public and private provision and assessing the institutional set-up of the sector, (II) assesses demand for child care by households using data from a recent World Bank study on child care in Turkey; (III) focuses on private and local providers of child care in Turkey, first looking at the microeconomics of private providers (cost and pricing structure) in the sector and then focusing on fieldwork results taken from in-depth interviews carried out for this study with agents at workplaces (Corporates, Organized Industrial Zones) as well as municipalities.

November 2014 - April 2015

Master Class on Value of Money in Education

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This half-day technical session delivered in Johannesburg, South Africa to senior level bureaucrats in Ministries of Finance from African countries, was designed to introduce concepts and methodologies in value for money analysis in the education sector. The session included measurement methods such as (i) benefit incidence analysis (ii) provider level quantitative surveys (PETS) and (iii) an introduction to quantitative impact evaluation methods. The course used country and program case studies to illustrate methodologies.

September, 2014

Final Evaluation Report for "A Fair Start for Young Children in Turkish Rural Communities" Project

Early Childhood Care and Education, Gender and Women's Empowerment

“A Fair Start for Young Children in Turkish Rural Communities” project was conducted by the Mother Child Education Foundation (AÇEV) in Tokat from 20122015. The purpose of the project was two-fold: (i) to improve the physical, mental, social and emotional development of young children in rural Turkey by engaging them in an early childhood education program, and (ii) to increase the community awareness in early childhood education.  The mixed methods evaluation of the project utilized quantitative data that was collected from treatment and control villages in the baseline and post-test surveys, as well as qualitative data from 16 focus groups with beneficiary and non-beneficiary mothers and fathers in the program area, in-depth interviews and a short quantitative survey of teachers in the final phase of the program. 

November 2014-August 2015

Impact Evaluation of UN-Women Father Training for Violence-Free Families Project

Women’s Empowerment

The project evaluated the impact of a 3-year project funded by the UN- Women Trust Fund for Reducing Gender-Based Violence and implemented in Turkey by the Mother Child Education Foundation (AÇEV). The Father Training for Violence-Free Families Project (FTVFFP) aims to prevent violence against women and girls (VAW/G) by engaging men in a comprehensive and community-based violence prevention program. Throughout the three-year project, fathers and their wives were trained in a program that aims to foster democratic, anti-violent and gender-sensitive attitudes and behaviours within the family. The impact evaluation study used a mixed methods methodology using both quantitative surveys and qualitative focus groups and key informant interviews. 

The evaluation aimed (i) to measure improvements and changes in outcomes as a result of the trainings, in terms of  the fathers’ attitudes towards their children and wives, and the mothers’ awareness of violence and the existing legal structure in Turkey for protecting against VAW/G; (ii) to describe the external and contextual factors that may have also been at play and influenced the factors measured during the evaluation;  (iii) to identify the strengths, weaknesses, challenges and trends in the project activities that have implications for strengthening its future administrative, programmatic and strategic directions.

August 2013 - November 2013

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Building an ex-ante simulating model for estimating the capacity impact, benefit incidence, and cost effectiveness of child care subsidies: an application using provider-level data from Turkey